SQL Data Types for Various Databases


Data types, description and ranges for Microsoft Access, MySQL and Microsoft SQL Server.

There are lots of various data types in all databases. But we will show you the few important data types and their range and descriptions.



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Microsoft Access Data Types

Data type Description Storage Size
Text Use for text or combinations of text and numbers. 0 to 255 characters
Memo Stores up to 65,536 characters. 2 bytes
Byte Supports whole integer numbers from 0 to 255 1 byte
Integer Supports whole integer numbers between -32,768 and 32,767 2 bytes
Long Supports whole integer numbers between
-2,147,483,648 and 2,147,483,647
4 bytes
Single Single precision floating-point numbers. 4 bytes
Double Double precision floating-point numbers. 8 bytes
AutoNumber Automatically give each record its own unique number. 4 bytes
Date/Time Use for dates and times 8 bytes

SQL Server Data Types

String types:

Data type Description Storage
char(n) Fixed width character string. Maximum 8,000 characters Defined width
varchar(n) Variable width character string. Maximum 8,000 characters 2 bytes + number of chars
varchar(max) Variable width character string. Maximum 1,073,741,824 characters 2 bytes + number of chars
text Variable width character string. Maximum 2GB of text data 4 bytes + number of chars
image Variable width binary string. Maximum 2GB  

Number types:

Data type Description Storage
tinyint Supports whole integer numbers from 0 to 255 1 byte
smallint Supports whole integer numbers between -32,768 and 32,767 2 bytes
int Supports whole integer numbers between -2,147,483,648 and 2,147,483,647 4 bytes
bigint Supports whole integer numbers between -9,223,372,036,854,775,808 and 9,223,372,036,854,775,807 8 bytes
decimal(p,s) Fixed precision and scale numbers.

Allows numbers from -10^38 +1 to 10^38 –1.

5-17 bytes
float(n) Floating precision number data from -1.79E + 308 to 1.79E + 308.

The n parameter indicates whether the field should hold 4 or 8 bytes. float(24) holds a 4-byte field and float(53) holds an 8-byte field. Default value of n is 53.

4 or 8 bytes

Date types:

Data type Description Storage
datetime From January 1, 1753 to December 31, 9999 with an accuracy of 3.33 milliseconds 8 bytes
smalldatetime From January 1, 1900 to June 6, 2079 with an accuracy of 1 minute 4 bytes
date Store a date only. From January 1, 0001 to December 31, 9999 3 bytes
time Store a time only to an accuracy of 100 nanoseconds 3-5 bytes

MySQL Data Types

In MySQL there are three main types : text, number, and Date/Time types.

Text types:

Data type Description
CHAR(size) Holds a fixed length string (can contain letters, numbers, and special characters). The fixed size is specified in parenthesis. Can store up to 255 characters
VARCHAR(size) Holds a variable length string (can contain letters, numbers, and special characters). The maximum size is specified in parenthesis. Can store up to 255 characters. Note: If you put a greater value than 255 it will be converted to a TEXT type
TEXT Holds a string with a maximum length of 65,535 characters
LONGTEXT Holds a string with a maximum length of 4,294,967,295 characters

Number types:

Data type Description
SMALLINT(size) -32768 to 32767 normal. 0 to 65535 UNSIGNED*. The maximum number of digits may be specified in parenthesis
INT(size) -2147483648 to 2147483647 normal. 0 to 4294967295 UNSIGNED*. The maximum number of digits may be specified in parenthesis
BIGINT(size) -9223372036854775808 to 9223372036854775807 normal. 0 to 18446744073709551615 UNSIGNED*. The maximum number of digits may be specified in parenthesis
FLOAT(size,d) A small number with a floating decimal point. The maximum number of digits may be specified in the size parameter. The maximum number of digits to the right of the decimal point is specified in the d parameter
DOUBLE(size,d) A large number with a floating decimal point. The maximum number of digits may be specified in the size parameter. The maximum number of digits to the right of the decimal point is specified in the d parameter
DECIMAL(size,d) A DOUBLE stored as a string , allowing for a fixed decimal point. The maximum number of digits may be specified in the size parameter. The maximum number of digits to the right of the decimal point is specified in the d parameter

*The integer types have an extra option called UNSIGNED. Normally, the integer goes from an negative to positive value. Adding the UNSIGNED attribute will move that range up so it starts at zero instead of a negative number.

Date types:

Data type Description
DATE() A date. Format: YYYY-MM-DD

Note: The supported range is from '1000-01-01' to '9999-12-31'

DATETIME() *A date and time combination. Format: YYYY-MM-DD HH:MI:SS

Note: The supported range is from '1000-01-01 00:00:00' to '9999-12-31 23:59:59'

TIME() A time. Format: HH:MI:SS

Note: The supported range is from '-838:59:59' to '838:59:59'

*Even if DATETIME and TIMESTAMP return the same format, they work very differently. In an INSERT or UPDATE query, the TIMESTAMP automatically set itself to the current date and time. TIMESTAMP also accepts various formats, like YYYYMMDDHHMISS, YYMMDDHHMISS, YYYYMMDD, or YYMMDD.


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