HTML Introduction

HTML is the most common markup language used to create Web pages.


What is HTML?

  • HTML is an abbreviation for HyperText Markup Language.
  • HTML is the most often used markup language for producing Web pages.
  • The structure of a Web page is described in HTML.
  • HTML consists of a number of components.
  • HTML components instruct the browser how the material can be displayed.
  • HTML elements name contents parts such as "the heading," "a paragraph," "the link," etc. The components are HTML elements.
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A Simple HTML Document

Example

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<title>Page Title</title>
</head>
<body>

<h1>Your First Heading</h1>
<p>Your first paragraph.</p>

</body>
</html>

Result of the above query

Your First Heading

Your first paragraph.

Example Explained

  • The <!DOCTYPE html> declaration specifies that this is an HTML5 page.
  • The <html> element is the HTML page's root element
  • The <head> element includes metadata about the HTML page.
  • The <title> element defines an HTML page title (which appears in the browser's title bar or in the page's tab).
  • The <body> element specifies the body of the page and serves as a container for all visible components like headings, paragraphs, pictures, hyperlinks, tables, lists, and so on.
  • The element <h1> defines a wide header
  • The <p> element specifies a subsection

What is an HTML Element?

A start tag, some contents, and an end tag are a specified HTML element:

<tagname>Content goes here...</tagname>

Everything from the start tag to the end tag is considered an HTML element:

<h1>My First Heading</h1>

<p>My first paragraph.</p>

Start tag Element content End tag
<h1> My First Heading </h1>
<p> My first paragraph. </p>
<br> none none

Note: There's no content for some HTML components (such as the
element). These elements are known as vacuum elements. There is no end tag for empty items!

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Web Browsers

A web browser (Chrome, Edge, Firefox, Safari, etc.) reads HTML pages and displays them appropriately.

An HTML element is not shown by a browser, but is used to find out how the page is shown:

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HTML Page Structure

Below is a visualization of an HTML page structure:

Note that the material contained within the body section (the white area above) will be shown in a browser. The content of the <title> element appears in the title bar of the browser or in the tab of the page.

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HTML History

There are several versions of HTML from the early days of the World Wide Web:

Year Version
1989 Tim Berners-Lee invented www
1991 Tim Berners-Lee invented HTML
1993 Dave Raggett drafted HTML+
1995 HTML Working Group defined HTML 2.0
1997 W3C Recommendation: HTML 3.2
1999 W3C Recommendation: HTML 4.01
2000 W3C Recommendation: XHTML 1.0
2008 WHATWG HTML5 First Public Draft
2012 WHATWG HTML5 Living Standard
2014 W3C Recommendation: HTML5
2016 W3C Candidate Recommendation: HTML 5.1
2017 W3C Recommendation: HTML5.1 2nd Edition
2017 W3C Recommendation: HTML5.2