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## Python Conditions and If statements

The common logical conditions from mathematics is supported by Python :

• Equals: `a == b`
• Not Equals: `a != b`
• Less than: `a < b`
• Less than or equal to: `a <= b`
• Greater than: `a > b`
• Greater than or equal to: `a >= b`

Those conditions are most common in 'if statements' and loops to be used in various ways.

## The IF Statement

The `if` keyword is used to executes a single block of code, if given conditions are true.

Example :- Simple If statement :

``````a = 33
b = 200
if b > a:
print("b is greater than a")``````

Output :-

b is greater than a

In this example, two variables, `a` and `b`, are used to test whether `b` is greater than `a`, as part of the if statement. `a` is `33` and `b` is `200` and we know that `200` is larger than `33` so we print "`b` is larger than `a`" onto the screen.

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## Indentation

In order to define the scope, Python relies on indentation (whole space at the start of a line). For this purpose, other languages frequently use curly-brackets.

Example :- If an indentation is not provided (an error will be raised) :

``````a = 33
b = 200
if b > a:
print("b is greater than a")``````

Output :-

File "demo_if_error.py", line 4
print("b is greater than a")
^
IndentationError: expected an indented block

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## Elif

The `elif` keyword is used to executes a single code block from multiple block of codes.

The keyword of `elif` is pythonic: "Try this condition if previous conditions have not been met".

Example :-

``````a = 33
b = 33
if b > a:
print("b is greater than a")
elif a == b:
print("a and b are equal")``````

Output :-

a and b are equal

`a` is equivalent to `b`, so the first condition is not true but the `elif` condition is true and therefore we print to screen the following: "a and b are the same".

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## Else

Anything `else` that is not covered by the conditions above can be found.

Example 1 :-

``````a = 200
b = 33
if b > a:
print("b is greater than a")
elif a == b:
print("a and b are equal")
else:
print("a is greater than b")``````

Output :-

a is greater than b

`a` is greater than `b`, in this example, so the initial condition is not true, also the condition of the `elif` is not true, so we take the `else` condition and print to screen "`a` is greater than `b`".

Example 2 :- Without the `elif`, you can have `else` :

``````a = 200
b = 33
if b > a:
print("b is greater than a")
else:
print("b is not greater than a")``````

Output :-

b is not greater than a

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## Short Hand If

You can place it on the same line as if you only have one statement to perform.

Example 1 :- One line if statement :

``if a > b: print("a is greater than b")``

Output :-

"a is greater than b"

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## Short Hand If ... Else

If you only have one declaration, one `if`, and one for others to execute, you can all put it on the same line :

Example 1 :- One line `if else` statement :

``````a = 2
b = 330
print("A") if a > b else print("B")``````

Output :-

B

This technique is referred to as Ternary operators, or conditional statements.

On the same line you can also make several `else` statements :

Example 2 :- One line `if else` statement, with 3 conditions :

``````a = 330
b = 330
print("A") if a > b else print("=") if a == b else print("B")``````

Output :-

=

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## And

The keyword `and` the logical operator is used to combine the conditions :

Example :- Test if, `a` is greater than `b`, AND if `c` is greater than `a` :

``````a = 200
b = 33
c = 500
if a > b and c > a:
print("Both conditions are True")``````

Output :-

Both conditions are True

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## Or

The keyword `or` is a logical operator and used for combining conditions :

Example :- Test if `a` is greater than `b`, OR if `a` is greater than `c` :

``````a = 200
b = 33
c = 500
if a > b or a > c:
print("At least one of the conditions is True")``````

Output :-

At least one of the conditions is True

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## Nested If

`if` statements are inside, this is called statements nested `if` declarations are inside.

Example :-

``````x = 41
if x > 10:
print("Above ten,")
if x > 20:
print("and also above 20!")
else:
print("but not above 20.")``````

Output :-

Above ten,
and also above 20!

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## The pass Statement

`if` statements cannot be empty but if you have an `if` statement without content for any reason, put the `pass` statement in order to avoid error.

Example :-

``````a = 33
b = 200
if b > a:
pass
``````

Note:- having an empty if statement like this, would raise an error without the pass statement.

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