# Python Operators

Operators are used to manipulating variables and values.

Example :- We use the `+` operator in the following example to add two values :

``print(10 + 5)``

Output :-

15

Python categorizes operators as follows :

• Arithmetic operators
• Assignment operators
• Comparison operators
• Logical operators
• Identity operators
• Membership operators
• Bitwise operators
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## Python Arithmetic Operators

With numerical values, arithmetic operators are employed for common mathematical activities :

Operator Name Example Result
+ Addition 5 + 10 Total of 5 and 10
- Subtraction 5 - 10 Minus of 5 and 10
* Multiplication 5 * 10 multiplying of 5 and 10
/ Division 5 / 10 Dividing of 5 and 10
% Modulus 5 % 10 balance of 5 and 10
** Exponentiation 5 ** 10 End of 5 and 10
// Floor division 5 // 10 floor division of 5 and 10
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## Python Assignment Operators

To assign the values to the variables, assignment operators are also used :

Operator Example same as....
= a = 5 a = 5
+= a += 3 a = a + 3
-= a -= 3 a = a - 3
*= a *= 3 a = a * 3
/= a /= 3 a = a / 3
%= a %= 3 a = a % 3
//= a //= 3 a = a // 3
**= a **= 3 a = a ** 3
&= a &= 3 a = a & 3
|= a |= 3 a = a | 3
^= a ^= 3 a = a ^ 3
>>= a >>= 3 a = a >> 3
<<= a <<= 3 a = a << 3
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## Python Comparison Operators

Two values are used to make comparisons operators of comparison :

Operator Name Example
== Equal a == b
!= Not equal a != b
> Greater than a > b
< Less than a < b
>= Greater than or equal to a >= b
<= Less than or equal to a <= b
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## Python Logical Operators

To merge conditional formatting, logical operators are employed :

Operator Description Example
and Returns True if both statements are true x < 5 and x < 10
or Returns True if one of the statements is true x < 5 or x < 4
not Reverse the result, returns False if the result is true not(x < 5 and x < 10)
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## Python Identity Operators

Used to comparing objects are the identity operators, not if they are equal, but if they are the same object, with the same memory location :

Operator Description Example
is Returns True if both variables are the same object a is b
is not Returns True if both variables are not the same object a is not b
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## Python Membership Operators

Membership operators shall be used to test whether an object shows a sequence :

Operator Description Example
in Returns True if a sequence with the specified value is present in the object a in b
not in Returns True if a sequence with the specified value is not present in the object a not in b
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## Python Bitwise Operators

Bitwise are used to compare (binary) numbers by operators :

Operator Name Description
& AND Sets each bit to 1 if both bits are 1
| OR Sets each bit to 1 if one of two bits is 1
^ XOR Sets each bit to 1 if only one of two bits is 1
~ NOT Inverts all the bits
<< Zero fill left shift Shift left by pushing zeros in from the right and let the leftmost bits fall off
>> Signed right shift Shift right by pushing copies of the leftmost bit in from the left, and let the rightmost bits fall off
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