# Python Operators

Operators are used to **manipulating variables** and **values**.

**Example :-** We use the ** +** operator in the following example to

**add two values**:

print(10 + 5)

**Output :-**

Python **categorizes operators** as follows :

- Arithmetic operators
- Assignment operators
- Comparison operators
- Logical operators
- Identity operators
- Membership operators
- Bitwise operators

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## Python Arithmetic Operators

With **numerical values**, arithmetic operators are employed for common **mathematical activities** :

Operator | Name | Example | Result |
---|---|---|---|

+ | Addition | 5 + 10 | Total of 5 and 10 |

- | Subtraction | 5 - 10 | Minus of 5 and 10 |

* | Multiplication | 5 * 10 | multiplying of 5 and 10 |

/ | Division | 5 / 10 | Dividing of 5 and 10 |

% | Modulus | 5 % 10 | balance of 5 and 10 |

** | Exponentiation | 5 ** 10 | End of 5 and 10 |

// | Floor division | 5 // 10 | floor division of 5 and 10 |

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## Python Assignment Operators

To **assign the values** to the **variables**, assignment operators are also used :

Operator | Example | same as.... |
---|---|---|

= | a = 5 | a = 5 |

+= | a += 3 | a = a + 3 |

-= | a -= 3 | a = a - 3 |

*= | a *= 3 | a = a * 3 |

/= | a /= 3 | a = a / 3 |

%= | a %= 3 | a = a % 3 |

//= | a //= 3 | a = a // 3 |

**= | a **= 3 | a = a ** 3 |

&= | a &= 3 | a = a & 3 |

|= | a |= 3 | a = a | 3 |

^= | a ^= 3 | a = a ^ 3 |

>>= | a >>= 3 | a = a >> 3 |

<<= | a <<= 3 | a = a << 3 |

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## Python Comparison Operators

Two values are used to **make comparisons operators** of comparison :

Operator | Name | Example |
---|---|---|

== | Equal | a == b |

!= | Not equal | a != b |

> | Greater than | a > b |

< | Less than | a < b |

>= | Greater than or equal to | a >= b |

<= | Less than or equal to | a <= b |

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## Python Logical Operators

To **merge conditional** formatting, **logical operators** are employed :

Operator | Description | Example |
---|---|---|

and | Returns True if both statements are true |
x < 5 and x < 10 |

or | Returns True if one of the statements is true |
x < 5 or x < 4 |

not | Reverse the result, returns False if the result is true | not(x < 5 and x < 10) |

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## Python Identity Operators

Used to comparing objects are the **identity operators**, not if they are **equal**, but if they are the **same object**, with the **same memory location** :

Operator | Description | Example |
---|---|---|

is | Returns True if both variables are the same object |
a is b |

is not | Returns True if both variables are not the same object |
a is not b |

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## Python Membership Operators

**Membership operators** shall be used to **test whether an object** shows a sequence :

Operator | Description | Example |
---|---|---|

in | Returns True if a sequence with the specified value is present in the object |
a in b |

not in | Returns True if a sequence with the specified value is not present in the object |
a not in b |

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## Python Bitwise Operators

Bitwise are used to **compare (binary) numbers** by operators :

Operator | Name | Description |
---|---|---|

& | AND | Sets each bit to 1 if both bits are 1 |

| | OR | Sets each bit to 1 if one of two bits is 1 |

^ | XOR | Sets each bit to 1 if only one of two bits is 1 |

~ | NOT | Inverts all the bits |

<< | Zero fill left shift | Shift left by pushing zeros in from the right and let the leftmost bits fall off |

>> | Signed right shift | Shift right by pushing copies of the leftmost bit in from the left, and let the rightmost bits fall off |

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