Python Modules


What is a Module?

Consider a code library module to be same.

A file with a set of functions that your program wants to include.

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Create a Module

In order to construct a module, save the code you want in the extension file .py :

Example :- Save this code in a file named mymodule.py :

def greeting(name):
  print("Hello, " + name)
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Use a Module

The module we just generated can now be used by using the import statement :

Example :- Create a "demo.py" file and write the below code to import "mymodule.py" and use the greeting function the following module :

import mymodule

mymodule.greeting("Suresh")

Output :-

Hello, Suresh

Note : Use syntax: module_name.function_name when using a function from a module.

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Variables in Module

As already explained, but additionally variables of various types (arrays, dictionaries, objects, etc) can be present on the function :

Example 1 :- Save this code in the file mymodule.py :

person1 = {
  "name": "John",
  "age": 36,
  "country": "Norway"
}

Example 2 :- Create a "demo.py" file and write the below code to import the module called mymodule.py and access the dictionary person1 :

import mymodule

a = mymodule.person1["age"]
print(a)

Output :-

36

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Naming a Module

You can name the module file, but the extension.py must be used.

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Re-naming a Module

If you import a module, you can create an alias by using the as keyword :

Example :- Create an alias for mymodule called mx :

import mymodule as mx

a = mx.person1["age"]
print(a)

Output :-

36

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Built-in Modules

In the Python, you are able to import various built-in modules whenever you want.

Example :- Import and use the platform module :

import platform

x = platform.system()
print(x)

Output :-

Windows

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Using the dir() Function

The dir() function is used to lists all function names and/or variables names from a module.

Example :- List all the names defined by the module platform :

import platform

x = dir(platform)
print(x)

Output :-

['DEV_NULL', '_UNIXCONFDIR', 'WIN32_CLIENT_RELEASES', 'WIN32_SERVER_RELEASES', '__builtins__', '__cached__', '__copyright__', '__doc__', '__file__', '__loader__', '__name__', '__package __', '__spec__', '__version__', '_default_architecture', '_dist_try_harder', '_follow_symlinks', '_ironpython26_sys_version_parser', '_ironpython_sys_version_parser', '_java_getprop', '_libc_search', '_linux_distribution', '_lsb_release_version', '_mac_ver_xml', '_node', '_norm_version', '_perse_release_file', '_platform', '_platform_cache', '_pypy_sys_version_parser', '_release_filename', '_release_version', '_supported_dists', '_sys_version', '_sys_version_cache', '_sys_version_parser', '_syscmd_file', '_syscmd_uname', '_syscmd_ver', '_uname_cache', '_ver_output', 'architecture', 'collections', 'dist', 'java_ver', 'libc_ver', 'linux_distribution', 'mac_ver', 'machine', 'node', 'os', 'platform', 'popen', 'processor', 'python_branch', 'python_build', 'python_compiler', 'python_implementation', 'python_revision', 'python_version', 'python_version_tuple', 're', 'release', 'subprocess', 'sys', 'system', 'system_aliases', 'uname', 'uname_result', 'version', 'warnings', 'win32_ver']

Note : The dir() function can be used in all modules, even your own.

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Import from Keyword

By utilising a from Keyword, you can only import pieces (specific variables or functions) from a module.

Example 1 :- mymodule has a single function and a single dictionary :

def greeting(name):
  print("Hello, " + name)

person1 = {
  "name": "John",
  "age": 36,
  "country": "Norway"
}

Example 2 :- Import from the module only the person1 dictionary :

from mymodule import person1

print(person1["age"])

Output :-

36

Note : Do not mention the module name when importing elements in the module when using a from keyword.

Example is person1["age"] and not mymodule.person1["age"].

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